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Human beings are always immersed in a social environment which not only change the Very structure of the individual or just compels him to recognize facts but also provides him with a readymade system of signs. It imposes on him a series of obligations. Two environments home and school share an influential space in child’s life and there exists a unique just apposition between the two. Its very nature, the family is the social-biological unit that exerts the greatest influence on the development and perpetuation of the individual’s behavior. Next to family, the school is the most important experience in the process of child development. When the child enters in the school arena , he or she is presented with new opportunities in terms of socialization and cognitive development. These opportunities are provided in different measures in different school and may have a direct impact on the cognitive and affective behaviors of students. The nature of this impact can be understood if we devote to improve environmental quality of school that are most effective in promoting optimum development of each child’s potentialities. If child perceived psycho-social and physical environment of school positively then he or she learn more in the school and be competent.
Career planning is one of the most crucial factors in students life, which needs no emphasis. It is important at least for two reasons. First, whether you opt for a career in jobs or prefer to be on your own, you must appreciate that there is fierce competition for getting a space in the world of work. Remember the old adage, “Survival of the fittest”. Second, in view of new developments primarily triggered off by the information technology (IT) and globalization of the economy, there are now more options than ever before. You will have to look for these options. Remember also that these are days of specialization.
When should you begin the career planning? The age that could be considered appropriate for making a start is the age of 14-15 years when you enter the Ninth Class under the 10 + 2 pattern of education. This is the formative age to shape your career. Much more important reason, however, is that it is after the 10 + 2 level that a wide variety of course options are available to choose from. This means that as the first step you will have to choose from the three streams viz., science, arts and humanities, and commerce and the appropriate combination of subjects, when you enter the 10+2 level. To a great extent, this choice would determine the course options available to you after the 10 + 2 level. For example, if you want to take up engineering degree course, you should not only join the science stream but should also opt for the combination comprising Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.
Before you enter the 10 + 2 stage, you may like to consider which syllabus provides wider options. As you are aware, there are three Secondary Boards viz., the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) and Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination (ICSE) and the State Boards, each having its own syllabus. While the CBSE and ICSE syllabuses permit combining biology and mathematics, not all the State Boards provide similar opportunity. Before you embark upon planning your career you may have to consider two issues:
1. Do you need an immediate job because of some adverse family circumstances?
2. Is your family financially sound enough to pay for your professional education?
If you need a job, say after you complete the secondary stage, but still want to pursue higher education, you may like to take up a suitable course through distance learning mode. There are now many options available. You can study according to your own pace and convenience. You can even study both the secondary (Class 10) and higher secondary (10 + 2) courses through the distance-learning mode. As regards the second issue, the stark reality is that it is becoming increasingly difficult for many middle class families to meet the spiraling cost of professional education. Scholarships, free ships and other financial supports are scarce. You may be aware that in professional colleges there are two categories of seats “free seats” and “payment seats”. Since the tuition fees for “free seats” are highly subsidized, you pay much less compared to those for “payment seats”. Generally, “free seats” are allotted to students on the basis of the performance at the entrance tests. You will, therefore, have to strive very hard if you want to get a “free seat” in professional colleges. If your family is unable to bear the cost of “elite” professional courses, you may choose a professional course, which also promises a reasonably good career at an affordable cost. It is prudent to cut your coat according to the available cloth. However, the financial consideration alone need not determine this option. There are other good reasons too for seeking a career in these professions. This option should also be considered if you cannot get through entrance tests for professional courses. Career planning should be preceded by two steps:
1. Assess your strengths and weaknesses, likings, aptitudes and interests.
2. Gather as much information as possible about the various educational opportunities and choose one that conforms to your assessment.
Both are easier said than done. Therefore, it is necessary for schools establishing their own career and course information centers and provide guidance and counseling to their students. In the absence of such facilities in your school, try to collect information from different sources. Here is a note of caution. Never take the claims of flashy advertisements in newspapers and other media at their face value. More often than not, they are issued by fly-by-night operators to allure unsuspecting students. Ascertain the status of these institutions.
If you do not intend to pursue university education, you may opt, after the 10th class, for various Vocational Courses available in different areas. The most sought after ones of course are the polytechnic courses of three-year duration leading to diplomas in different branches of engineering and technology. The advantage of polytechnic courses is that in some branches a diploma holder can make a lateral entry into degree level engineering courses. A clear idea about the vocational courses, therefore, would be helpful in taking an appropriate decision.
As stated earlier, at the 10 + 2 level you have three options:
1. The Science Stream
2. The Arts/Humanities Stream and
3. The Commerce Stream.
One problem you may face while choosing the combination of subjects is that the desired one may not be available in many 10 + 2 level institutions (higher secondary schools and junior colleges) Particularly in rural areas. A brief account of each of the streams follows:
There is a common belief that science is the most important subject, compared to humanities or even commerce. There is also a general feeling in our society that the best students opt for science. This is an assumption of most parents, students and teachers. In fact, brilliance and intelligence is not the exclusive preserve of science. If a student is interested in doing engineering courses, such as civil, mechanical, electronics, metallurgy, computers, the option should be for a combination of mathematics, physics and chemistry (MPC). If you wish to take up medicine, dentistry, agricultural science, dairy science or biological sciences (biochemistry, biotechnology), the combination should be biology, physics and chemistry (B PC). It is true that the advantage of choosing science stream is that you can shift to the other two streams viz., humanities and commerce after 10 + 2. It also opens up the gateway to a large number of career and course options, even if you cannot make it to the most coveted courses in engineering, medicine or agriculture. In several universities, particularly in the South, besides the usual combinations, such subjects as microbiology, computer science can be chosen at the B Sc level..
Apart form doing the degree level courses in science with the conventional combinations you can also choose degree courses in several emerging professional areas, such as physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nursing, computer, business administration, hotel management, tourism management. You can also opt for courses outside the university stream, such as hotel management, fashion technology, industrial design, packaging, aircraft maintenance engineering, government accredited computer courses and a host of post 10 + 2 level vocational courses. However, if you are very clear that science is not your cup of tea, there is no point in wasting two precious years simply because it keeps many options open. It would rather be desirable to explore the opportunities the other fields offer.
Next to science, commerce stream opens up a variety of options after 10 + 2 stage. Some examples are: company secretary-ship, chartered accountancy, cost accountancy, business management, computer. Although chartered accountancy, cost accountancy or company secretary-ship course can be taken up after 10 + 2 (after successfully completing the Foundation Courses) you should be aware that each year only a small percentage of those who take the examinations get through. It may, therefore, be wise to obtain the basic B Com degree first. B Com with Computer as one of the combinations is now a much sought after course In all the three streams, students can now opt for job-oriented vocational subjects at the first degree level available in selected colleges affiliated to many universities. Another recent development has been the diversification of courses, professional in nature, at the first-degree level itself, although the number is institutions offering such course is still small. International postgraduate programme of five-year duration after 10 + 2 in several subjects are being introduced by some universities.
It is not widely appreciated that humanities also offer many options after 10 + 2 other than the usual BA degree course. Except for courses in science and technology areas, they can take up many other courses such as travel & tourism, advertising, journalism, performing arts, business management, etc. Humanities is also the favorite choice of many students who sit for the civil service examinations.
There are certain subjects obviously know to all the students, yet there may be few subjects, students may not be aware of.
The nature of work of a psychologist is influenced most by the areas of specialization in the subject. They work in a number of different settings, including universities and colleges, primary and secondary schools, government agencies, private industry, hospitals, clinics, and private practices. They are also employed in social welfare organizations, research establishments, rehabilitation centers, prisons, child/ youth guidance centers, advertising industry and in a variety of other set-ups. .
Psychologist with master's degree, work under the supervision of one or more doctoral level psychologists. Those with bachelor's degree are eligible for jobs in community health centers and vocational rehabilitations and as administrative assistants.
Career prospects in Psychology depend on the area of specialization. There are variety of options for psychologists. They can specialize in various areas such as.
Clinical Psychologists - Clinical Psychologists work in counseling centers, independent or group practices, hospitals, community health centers or clinics. They help mentally and emotionally disturbed clients adjust to life and may help medical and surgical patients deal with illnesses or injuries. Areas of specialization within clinical psychology include health psychology, neuron psychology, and gero psychology
Counseling Psychologists -Counseling is the skill of helping normal people, through discussion, to decide how best to cope in specific situations. Counseling psychologists deals with people who have serious emotional and personal problems. They use various techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living.
Social Psychologists - Social psychologists work with social organizations and institutions in research, systems design or other applied psychology fields. They seek to understand the nature and causes of individual behavior with others and with the social environment.
Educational Psychologists - They work in schools and colleges with teachers, students, parents and administrators to resolve students learning and behavior problems. They may evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, behavior management procedures, and other services provided in the school setting.
Industrial Psychologists - Industrial psychologists work for business, industry or government. They apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace to improve the working conditions and productivity of employees. They also advise companies on ways of getting consumers interested in products and services.
Research psychologists -As researchers, psychologists proceed like scientists. They investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. They use laboratory experiments and various kinds of tests, interviews, questionnaires and surveys. Prominent areas of study in experimental research include motivation, thought, attention, learning and memory, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance abuse, and genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior.
Developmental psychologists - They study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life. Some specialize in behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, or changes that occur during maturity or old age.
Training in sociology provides students with a perspective on human development and social life that is an especially important part of a college education. Social theory and research methods provide the foundation for study in sociology. On this foundation, programs with electives can be built to meet the needs of students with different goals and interests. The research emphasis trains in data gathering, analysis, and report writing - these are valuable in many careers. In addition, an understanding of the relationships between individuals and groups can prove useful in everyday life as well as at work.
Students trained in sociology at University, have entered a wide variety of occupations. A few have become professional sociologists. While most professional sociologists teach at colleges and universities, an increasing number hold research, administration, or policy positions in a variety of settings. Many students have used sociology as a preparation for law or other professions such as social work, counseling, public health, library science, criminology, and public administration. Students who begin work immediately after completing a bachelor's degree in sociology usually enter careers in human services, administration/management in public or private agencies, or research in a variety of organizations.
Develop proper attitudes for developing interest and desire to assume responsibilities of home activity. Teachers in schools, colleges, industrial industries .
Dietician in hospitals nursing homes, health clubs and guest house. As chefs house keepers and personnel in hotel industry. Decorators in homes, hotel etc. designers for fashion in garment industry. There is plenty scope for opportunities related to cosmetics , confectionery laundry and foods. There is scope for working in child and family welfare organization. There is plenty being offered for post graduate studies…
Food and nutrition, community resource management, child development, dietetics and hospital management, textile and clothing. Research in the various home science related fields is forever contributing towards the welfare of the community.
To gain programming skills in GUI programming tool and database creation. To design program and develop database applications using GUI programming tool. To learn database connectivity using visual basic as front- end tool. To develop ability to use the open source technology.
Whatever stream you may select, you should put in your best efforts, which would surely lead to the path of success. Obtaining high marks in the qualifying examinations will put you in a comparatively better position to get into the course of choice after the 10 + 2 level.